A Framework for Thinking Ethically
This document is designed as an introduction to thinking ethically. We all have an image of our better selves-of
how we are when we act ethically or are “at our best.” We probably also have an image of what an ethical
community, an ethical business, an ethical government, or an ethical society should be. Ethics really has to do
with all these levels-acting ethically as individuals, creating ethical organizations and governments, and making
our society as a whole ethical in the way it treats everyone.
What is Ethics?
Simply stated, ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many
situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers,
professionals, and so on.
It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT:
Ethics is not the same as feelings. Feelings provide important information for our ethical choices.
Some people have highly developed habits that make them feel bad when they do something wrong, but
many people feel good even though they are doing something wrong. And often our feelings will tell us
it is uncomfortable to do the right thing if it is hard.
Ethics is not religion. Many people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone. Most religions do
advocate high ethical standards but sometimes do not address all the types of problems we face.
Ethics is not following the law. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law
can deviate from what is ethical. Law can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have
made it. Law can be a function of power alone and designed to serve the interests of narrow groups. Law
may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to
address new problems.
Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms. Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become
corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns (as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War).
“When in Rome, do as the Romans do” is not a satisfactory ethical standard.
Ethics is not science. Social and natural science can provide important data to help us make better
ethical choices. But science alone does not tell us what we ought to do. Science may provide an
explanation for what humans are like. But ethics provides reasons for how humans ought to act. And just
because something is scientifically or technologically possible, it may not be ethical to do it.
Why Identifying Ethical Standards is Hard
There are two fundamental problems in identifying the ethical standards we are to follow:
1. On what do we base our ethical standards?