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Advertising Principles

Choose 3 print advertisement (provide them as attachments or links) and 3 video ads.

1. Go through the Advertising Principles evidence excel file and state as many principles as each of the ads apply/relevant to.Explain how.

2. For each ad, describe which of the (as many as applies) theories mentioned in the chapter applies and how.

3. Do you agree that we are facing the death of the USP?If so, how would this impact on advertising?

4. Find one example of polysemy.

 

All Principles

Evidence on Persuasion Principles: This provides some guidance how much confidence you can place on the principles
Analyzed by J. Scott Armstrong on December 8, 2010; re-analyzed by Elliot Tusk on May 26, 2011
Common sense Received wisdom No evidence Expert opinion Non-experimental evidence Single experiment Some experimental evidence Much experimental evidence Comments
SUM
Number Principle
1 INFORMATION
1.1 Benefits
1.1.1 Describe specific, meaningful benefits 1 1
1.1.2 Communicate a Unique Selling Principle (USP) 1 1 1
1.2 News
1.2.1 Provide news, but only if it is real 1 1
1.2.2 If real news is complex, use still media 1
1.3 Product or service
1.3.1 Provide product information that customers need 1
1.3.2 Provide choices 1
1.3.3 When there are many substantive, multi-dimensional options, organize them and provide guidance 1
1.3.4 Make the recommended choice the default choice 1
1.3.5 Inform committed customers that they can delete features, rather than add them 1
1.3.6 To reduce customer risk, use a product-satisfaction guarantee 1
1.4 Price
1.4.1 State prices in terms that are meaningful and easy to understand 1 1
1.4.2 Use round prices 1 1
1.4.3 Show the price to be a good value against a reference price 1
1.4.4 If quality is not a key selling point, consider advertising price reductions 1
1.4.5 Consider partitioned prices when the add-on prices seem fair and small relative to the base price 1
1.4.6 To retain customers, consider linking payments to consumption 1
1.4.7 Consider separating payments from benefits- if the payments are completed before the benefits end 1
1.4.8 State that the price can be prepaid if it might reduce uncertainty for consumers 1 1
1.4.9 Use high costs to justify high prices 1
1.4.10 When quality is high, do not emphasize price 1
1.4.11 Use high prices to connote high quality 1 1
1.4.12 For inexpensive products, state price discounts as percentage saved; for expensive products, state price discounts as dollars saved- or present both 1
1.4.13 Minimize price information for new products 1
1.4.14 Consider bundling prices of features or complementary products or services if they are desirable for nearly all customers 1
1.4.15 Advertise multi-unit purchases for frequently purchased low-involvement products if it is also in the consumers’ interest 1
1.5 Distribution
1.5.1 Include information on when, where and how to buy the product 1 1
1.5.2 Feature a sales channel when it is impressive 1
1.5.3 Use the package to enhance the product 1
1.5.4 If a product is desirable, specify delivery dates rather than waiting times 1
1.5.5 Tell customers they can achieve benefits over a long time period if you want to reduce the use of an offer- and vice versa 1
2 INFLUENCE
2.1 Reasons
2.1.1 Provide a reason 1
2.1.2 For high-involvement products, the reasons should be strong 1
2.2 Social Proof
2.2.1 Show that the product is widely used 1
2.2.2 Focus on individuals similar to the target market 1 1
2.3 Scarcity
2.3.1 State that an attractive product is scarce when it is true 1
2.3.2 Restrict sales of the product 1 1
2.4 Attribution
2.4.1 Attribute favorable behavior and traits to the target market 1
2.5 Liking
2.5.1 Associate products with things that are favorable and relevant 1 1
2.6 Authority
2.6.1 To enhance believability, consider using support from an authority 1
2.7 Commitment
2.7.1 Ask customers to make explicit promises 1
2.7.2 Ask customers to take a relevant small step, then follow quickly with a directly related second request 1
2.8 Reciprocation
2.8.1 Give something to specific individuals when they can reciprocate easily 1
3 EMOTION
3.1 Emotional Focus
3.1.1 Do not mix rational and emotional appeals in an ad 1 1
3.2 Trust
3.2.1 Sign an ethical standards statement for each ad 1
3.3 Self-expression
3.3.1 Show how the product allows customers to express their personalities 1
3.4 Guilt
3.4.1 Lead people to think about their standards 1
3.4.2 Evoke self-awareness 1
3.4.3 Encourage people to anticipate their guilt if they ignore reasonable advice 1
3.4.4 Focus on victims similar to the target market 1
3.5 Fear
3.5.1 Consider using a threat related to likely or severe consequences that can be eliminated 1
3.6 Provocation
3.6.1 Provoke customers only when it attracts attention to a selling point 1
4 MERE EXPOSURE
4.1 Brand Name
4.1.1 When there is no need for information, consider advertising the brand name 1
4.2 Product Placements
4.2.1 Link the product to familiar and positive situations 1
5 OVERCOMING RESISTANCE
5.1 Distraction
5.1.1 For products that have neither advantages nor disadvantages, consider using distraction 1
5.1.2 For products offering clear benefits, consider distraction only if the message will be understood 1
5.1.3 When customers might resist traditional appeals, surprise them with an unusual approach 1
5.1.4 For low-involvement goods that are for immediate sale, consider disruption and reframing of an offer 1
5.1.5 Create an unrelated threat; then remove it 1
5.2 Perspectives
5.2.1 Present an offer from a new perspective 1
5.2.2 Focus on benefits or features rather than choices 1
5.3 Stories
5.3.1 When the target market has an opposing viewpoint, consider using a story 1 1
5.4 Barriers
5.4.1 Offer credit for currently owned products 1
5.4.2 Seek early commitment for time-consuming activities 1
5.4.3 Consider making small requests 1
5.5 Brand Emphasis
5.5.1 Make the brand/company name prominent if it conveys a good image 1 1
5.5.2 Include brand and company names (double-branding) 1 1
5.5.3 Personalize the brand 1
5.6 Spokesperson
5.6.1 Use a spokesperson who is similar to the customer on relevant traits 1 1
5.6.2 Use a spokesperson whose appearance is consistent with the objectives, product and target market 1
5.6.3 Use a trustworthy and credible spokesperson 1
5.6.4 Use a physically attractive spokesperson for products that enhance beauty 1
5.7 Forewarning
5.7.1 Forewarn about persuasion attempts for low-involvement goods 1
5.8 Two-Sided Arguments
5.8.1 Use two-sided arguments that refute strong opposing arguments 1
5.8.2 Put supporting arguments before opposing, or begin with the supporting one and interweave them 1
5.9 Indirect Conclusions vs. Direct Conclusions
5.9.1 If resistance is not expected, use direct conclusions 1
5.9.2 If resistance is expected, use indirect conclusions when the arguments are strong and obvious 1
5.10 Innuendos
5.10.1 Use positive innuendos when there is some basis 1
5.10.2 Negative innuendos are effective when there is one major competitor and total demand is of little interest 1
5.11 Customer Involvement
5.11.1 If good reasons can be easily generated, ask customers to provide a few reasons for accepting an offer 1
5.11.2 Consider asking customers to imagine their satisfaction with a product 1
5.11.3 Do not invite customers to evaluate their satisfaction while using a product 1
5.11.4 Encourage customers to make predictions about their behavior 1
5.11.5 Ask customers to remember the brand name or key arguments 1
5.11.6 Consider omitting or delaying key information 1
5.12 Trials and Free Samples
5.12.1 Consider advertising a free trial or sample for products new to the target market 1
5.13 Causes
5.13.1 Support popular causes 1 1
5.13.2 Tie purchases to popular causes 1
6 ACCEPTANCE
6.1 Problem/Solution
6.1.1 Describe a problem and show how the product solves it 1 1
6.2 Demonstration
6.2.1 Demonstrate product benefits 1 1
6.3 Evidence
6.3.1 Provide quantitative evidence 1
6.3.2 Offer verifiable evidence 1 1
6.4 Data presentation
6.4.1 To aid understanding, use absolute numbers for small values and frequency rates for large values 1
6.4.2 Use simple tables or graphs if you have substantial amounts of data 1
6.5 Endorsements by Customers
6.5.1 Consider endorsements by customers 1 1
6.6 Endorsements by Celebrities
6.6.1 When an ad contains strong arguments, avoid the use of celebrities 1 1
6.6.2 Consider celebrity endorsements for gaining attention 1 1
6.6.3 When using celebrities, make sure they are relevant and credible 1
6.7 Endorsements by Experts
6.7.1 Consider support from an expert unless the target market already agrees with the message. 1 1
6.8 Comparative Advertising
6.8.1 Use comparative advertising for brands that have clear comparative benefits and small market share 1
6.8.2 Compare the product to market leaders 1
6.8.3 When making a comparative claim, provide objective support and offer it gently 1
6.9 Negative Advertising
6.9.1 Consider negative advertising when there is only one major alternative to your brand, that brand has serious shortcomings, and industry demand is not a key factor 1 1
6.9.2 Attack ads should employ objective information, not emotion 1
6.10 Refutation
6.10.1 Respond to negative claims that are or might become widely known 1 1
6.11 Puffery
6.11.1 Consider mild puffery 1 1
6.12 Questions
6.12.1 Use product-related questions only if you have good answers 1
6.13 Repetition
6.13.1 Space repeated claims 1
6.13.2 Consider cosmetic variations rather than exact repetition 1
6.13.3 Use substantive variations when arguments are strong 1
6.14 Subliminal Messages
6.14.1 Use subliminal messages only if the customer is warned 1
6.15 Memory Devices
6.15.1 Use mnemonics when consumers will be purchasing at a later time 1
6.16 Word-of-Mouth
6.16.1 Encourage customers to tell (or ask) others about the product 1
6.17 Call for Action
6.17.1 Ensure action steps are clear and specific 1
6.17.2 Use a gentle call for action for high-involvement products 1
6.17.3 When using an explicit action step, make it immediate, easy and low risk 1 1
6.17.4 Consider a bonus to a good offer when customers can respond quickly 1
7 MESSAGE
7.1 Rational Arguments
7.1.1 Use only strong arguments for high-involvement products 1
7.1.2 Use positive arguments 1
7.1.3 Consider cultural values when formulating arguments 1
7.2 Clarity
7.2.1 Use simple prose for high-involvement products with strong arguments 1 1
7.2.2 Avoid negative words unless the target market believes the opposite 1 1
7.3 Forceful Text
7.3.1 Use specific words 1
7.3.2 Use power words if they fit the product 1
7.3.3 Use active rather than passive voice, unless the subject of the sentence is obvious 1
7.4 Interesting Text
7.4.1 Consider interesting writing 1
7.5 Tone
7.5.1 Use a calm tone for high-involvement products with strong arguments 1
7.5.2 Do not violate taste or standards 1
7.5.3 Be cautious in using a personal tone 1
7.6 Word Selection
7.6.1 Use words with sounds that support the message 1
7.6.2 Use words that enhance the purchasing and consuming experience 1 1
7.6.3 Use familiar words and phrases 1 1
7.7 Wordplay
7.7.1 Use wordplay if it is clearly related to the product 1 1
7.8 Metaphors
7.8.1 Consider using novel and concrete metaphors that are related to a benefit 1
7.9 Simplicity
7.9.1 Use a single relevant theme- or two in some situations 1 1
7.9.2 Avoid irrelevant information if strong arguments exist 1
7.9.3 When using fast-exposure media, keep the message short 1
7.10 Informative Illustration
7.10.1 Illustrations should support the basic message 1 1
7.10.2 Show the product 1 1
7.10.3 Emphasize desirable features in illustrations 1
7.10.4 When believability is an issue, use photographs/videos instead of drawings/cartoons 1 1
7.11 Infromative Color
7.11.1 Use color to provide information 1 1
7.12 Ad Consistency
7.12.1 Make elements of an ad reinforce one another 1
7.13 Disclaimer and Corrective Advertising
7.13.1 Use disclaimers or corrective advertising only if they provide information customers need 1 1
8 ATTENTION
8.1 Alerting the target market
8.1.1 Alert the target market early and prominently 1
8.2 Campaign Consistency
8.2.1 Provide a consistent look to all aspects of the campaign 1
8.2.2 Keep the advertising consistent across time 1
8.3 Campaign Contrast
8.3.1 When strong arguments exist, consider using ads that contrast with competitors’ ads 1
8.4 Slogans and Taglines
8.4.1 Consider a short memorable slogan (tagline) with the brand name and benefit 1 1
8.5 Brand Identifiers
8.5.1 In a long-term advertising program, emphasize brand identifiers 1 1
8.5.2 Use logos to express meanings or emotions 1
8.6 Attractive Visuals
8.6.1 Consider using visuals that create favorable associations with the product 1
8.7 Color for Attention
8.7.1 To gain attention, consider using color 1 1
8.8 Humor
8.8.1 Consider using humor for well-known, low-involvement products 1 1
8.8.2 Consider humor for high-involvement products only if relevant to a simple argument 1 1
8.9 Sex
8.9.1 Use sex only when it has relevance to the product 1 1
8.10 Models
8.10.1 Match the model to the target market and product 1 1
8.10.2 Use physically attractive models when the product enhances beauty or social competence 1
8.11 Technical Quality
8.11.1 Strive for high technical quality at a low cost 1
9 STILL MEDIA
9.1 Headline
9.1.1 Use descriptive headlines for high-involvement products 1
9.1.2 Include the brand name in the headline 1
9.1.3 Lead the reader into the body copy 1
9.1.4 Keep the headline short for low-involvement goods only 1 1
9.2 Pictures
9.2.1 For high-involvement ads based on strong arguments, consider informative pictures 1 1
9.2.2 When using a picture, relate it to the headline or message 1
9.2.3 Use clear and readable captions for pictures 1
9.3 Text
9.3.1 Make the first paragraph relevant, short and easy to read 1 1
9.3.2 Provide long copy when reading time is not constrained 1 1
9.3.3 Repeat the main message at the end of the ad 1 1
9.4 Structure of Body Text
9.4.1 Use informative subheadings for long copy 1 1
9.4.2 Use reader guides for long copy with strong arguments 1
9.4.3 Use columns for long, informative text 1
9.4.4 Consider blank line spacing between paragraphs for scanability 1
9.4.5 Consider justification for moderate to long lines of text 1
9.4.6 Squeeze inter-letter spacing gently 1
9.4.7 Use phrase spacing for informative text 1
9.5 Typeface
9.5.1 Use a simple serif typeface when readability is important, and a simple sans serif typeface when legibility or scanning is important 1
9.5.2 Provide high contrast between typeface and background 1
9.5.3 Avoid upper case and bold for informative text 1
9.5.4 Select a typeface to enhance meaning or emotion 1 1
9.6 Layout
9.6.1 Obey gravity 1
9.6.2 Avoid large pictures in informative ads 1 1
9.6.3 Balance the layout 1
10 MOTION MEDIA
10.1 Scenes
10.1.1 Use an opening that is directly related to the product, brand or message 1
10.1.2 Emphasize the product or message 1
10.1.3 If believability is important, show the spokesperson on-screen 1 1
10.1.4 Use short “supers” to reinforce key points 1 1
10.1.5 Make the closing scene relevant to the key message 1
10.2 Voice
10.2.1 Use an appropriate voice 1
10.2.2 Avoid orally ambiguous words 1
10.3 Music and Sounds
10.3.1 Consider using music or sounds for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products with strong arguments 1 1
10.3.2 If music or sound effects are used, make them relevant to the product 1 1
10.4 Pace
10.4.1 Use rapid speech for simple messages about low-involvement products 1
10.4.2 Use slow speech for strong arguments or to show concern 1
10.4.3 Use short silences before and/or after strong arguments 1
10.4.4 Hold scenes to hold attention 1 1
TOTALS 3 6 4 2 65 40 88 42

1.Information

Number Principle Relevance Applied
1 Information
1.1 Benefits
1.1.1 Describe specific, meaningful benefits
1.1.2 Communicate a Unique Selling Principle (USP)
1.2 News
1.2.1 Provide news, but only if its real
1.2.2 If real news is complex, consider still media
1.3 Product or service
1.3.1 Provide product information that customers need
1.3.2 Provide choices
1.3.3 When there are many substantive, multi-dimensionaloptions, organize them and provide guidance
1.3.4 Make the recommended choice the default choice
1.3.5 Inform committed customers that they can delete features, rather than add them
1.3.6 To reduce customer risk, use a product-satisfaction guarantee
1.4 Price
1.4.1 State prices in terms that are meaningful and easy to understand
1.4.2 Use round prices
1.4.3 Show the price to be a good value against a reference price
1.4.4 If quality is not a key selling point, consider advertising price reductions
1.4.5 Consider partitioned prices when the add-on prices seem fair and small relative to the base price
1.4.6 To retain customers, consider linking payments to consumption
1.4.7 Consider separating payments from benefits- if the payments are completed before the benefits end
1.4.8 State that the price can be prepaid if it might reduce uncertainty for consumers
1.4.9 Use high costs to justify high prices
1.4.10 When quality is high, do not emphasize price
1.4.11 Use high prices to connote high quality
1.4.12 For inexpensive products, state price discounts as percentage saved; for expensive products, state price discounts as dollars saved- or present both
1.4.13 Minimize price information for new products
1.4.14 Consider bundling prices of features or complementary products or services if they are desirable to nearly all customers
1.4.15 Advertise multi-unit purchases for frequently purchased low-involvement products if it is in the consumers’ interest
1.5 Distribution
1.5.1 Include information on when, where and how to buy the product
1.5.2 Feature a sales channel when it is impressive
1.5.3 Use the package to enhance the product
1.5.4 If a product is desirable, specify delivery dates rahter than waiting times
1.5.5 Tell customers they can achieve benefits over a long time period if you want to reduce the use of an offer- and vice versa
1.5.4 If a product is desirable, specify delivery dates rahter than waiting times
1.5.5 Tell customers they can achieve benefits over a long time period if you want to reduce the use of an offer- and vice versa
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

2.Influence

2 Influence Relevance Applied
2.1 Reasons
2.1.1 Provide a reason
2.1.2 For high-involvement products, the reasons should be strong
2.2 Social Proof
2.2.1 Show that the product is widely used
2.2.2 Focus on individuals and evoke social proof
2.3 Scarcity
2.3.1 State that an attractive product is scarce when it is true
2.3.2 Restrict sales of the product
2.4 Attribution
2.4.1 Attribute favorable behavior and traits to the target market
2.5 Liking
2.5.1 Relate products to things that are favorable and relevant
2.6 Authority
2.6.1 To increase believability, consider using support from an authority
2.7 Commitment
2.7.1 Ask customers to make an explicit promise
2.7.2 Ask customers to take a relevant small step, then follow with a directly related second request
2.8 Reciprocation
2.8.1 Give something to specific individuals when they can reciprocate easily
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

3.Emotion

3 Emotion Relevance Applied
3.1 Emotional Focus
3.1.1 Do not mix rational and emotional appeals in an ad
3.2 Trust
3.2.1 Sign an ethical standards statement for each ad
3.3 Self-expression
3.3.1 Show how the product allows customers to express their personalities
3.4 Guilt
3.4.1 Lead people to think about their ethical standards
3.4.2 Evoke self-awareness
3.4.3 Encourage people to anticipate their guilt if they ignore reasonable advice
3.4.4 Focus on victims similar to the target market
3.5 Fear
3.5.1 Consider using a threat related to likely or severe consequences that can be eliminated
3.6 Provocation
3.6.1 Provoke customers only when it attracts attention to a selling point
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

4.Mere Exposure

4 Mere Exposure Relevance Applied
4.1 Brand Name
4.1.1 When there is no need for information, consider advertising the brand name
4.2 Product Placements
4.2.1 Link the product to familiar and positive situations
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

5.Overcoming Resistance

5 Overcoming Resistance Relevance Applied
5.1 Distraction
5.1.1 For low-involvement products that have neither advantages nor disadvantages, consider using distraction
5.1.2 For products offering clear benefits, consider distraction only if the message will be understood
5.1.3 When customers might resist traditional appeals, surprise them with an unusual approach
5.1.4 For low-involvement goods that are for immediate sale, consider disruption and reframing of an offer
5.1.5 Create an unrelated threat; then remove it
5.2 Perspectives
5.2.1 Present an offer from a new perspective
5.2.2 Focus on benefits or features rather than choices
5.3 Stories
5.3.1 When the target market has an opposing viewpoint, consider using a story
5.4 Barriers
5.4.1 Offer credit for currently owned products
5.4.2 Seek early commitment for time-consuming activities
5.4.3 Consider making small requests
5.5 Brand Emphasis
5.5.1 Make the brand/company name prominent if it conveys a good image
5.5.2 Include brand and company names
5.5.3 Personalize the brand
5.6 Spokesperson
5.6.1 Use a spokesperson who is similar to the target customer on relevant traits
5.6.2 Use a spokesperson whose appearance is consistent with the objectives, product and target market
5.6.3 Use a trustworthy and credible spokesperson
5.6.4 Use a physically attractive spokesperson for products that enhance beauty
5.7 Forewarning
5.7.1 Forewarn about persuasion attempts for low-involvement goods
5.8 Two-Sided Arguments
5.8.1 Use two-sided arguments that refute strong opposing arguments
5.8.2 Put positive arguments before opposing arguments or begin with the supporting ones and interweave them
5.9 Indirect Conclusions vs. Direct Conclusions
5.9.1 If resistance is not expected, use direct conclusions
5.9.2 If resistance is expected, use indirect conclusions when the arguments are strong and obvious
5.10 Innuendos
5.10.1 Use positive innuendos when there is some basis
5.10.2 Negative innuendos are effective when there is one major competitor and total product demand is of little influence
5.11 Customer Involvement
5.11.1 If good reasons can be easily generated, ask customers to provide a few reasons for accepting an offer
5.11.2 Ask customers to imagine their satisfaction with a product
5.11.3 Do not invite customers to evaluate their satisfaction while using a product
5.11.4 Encourage customers to make predictions about their behavior
5.11.5 Ask customers to remember the brand name or key arguments
5.11.6 Consider omitting or delaying key information
5.12 Trials and Free Samples
5.12.1 Consider advertising a free trial or sample for products new to the target market
5.13 Causes
5.13.1 Support popular causes
5.13.2 Tie purchases to popular causes
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

6.Acceptance

6 Acceptance Relevance Applied
6.1 Problem/Solution
6.1.1 Describe a problem and show how the product solves it
6.2 Demonstration
6.2.1 Demonstrate product benefits
6.3 Evidence
6.3.1 Show quantitative support
6.3.2 Offer verifiable evidence
6.4 Data presentation
6.4.1 To aid understanding, use absolute numbers for small values and frequency rates for large values
6.4.2 Use simple tables or graphs if you have substantial amounts of data
6.5 Endorsements by Customers
6.5.1 Consider endorsements by customers
6.6 Endorsements by Celebrities
6.6.1 When an ad contains strong arguments, avoid the use of celebrities
6.6.2 Consider celebrity endorsements for gaining attention
6.6.3 When using celebrities, make sure they are relevant and credible
6.7 Endorsements by Experts
6.7.1 Provide support from an expert when the target market is undecided or resistant, otherwise avoid experts
6.8 Comparative Advertising
6.8.1 Use comparative advertising for brands that have clear comparative benefits and small market share
6.8.2 Compare the product to market leaders
6.8.3 When making a comparative claim, provide objective support and offer it gently
6.9 Negative Advertising
6.9.1 Consider negative advertising when there is only one major alternative to your brand, that brand has serious shortcomings, and industry demand iis not a key factor
6.9.2 Attack ads should employ objective information, not emotion
6.10 Refutation
6.10.1 Respond to negative claims that are or might become widely known
6.11 Puffery
6.11.1 Consider mild puffery
6.12 Questions
6.12.1 Use product-related questions only if you have good answers
6.13 Repetition
6.13.1 Space repeated claims
6.13.2 Consider cosmetic variations rather than exact repetition
6.13.3 Use substantive variations when arguments are strong
6.14 Subliminal Messages
6.14.1 Use subliminal messages only if the customer is wanted
6.15 Memory Devices
6.15.1 Use mnemonics when consumers will be purchasing at a later time
6.16 Word-of-Mouth
6.16.1 Encourage customers to tell (or ask) others about the product
6.17 Call for Action
6.17.1 Ensure action steps are clear and specific
6.17.2 Use a gentle call for action for high-involvement products
6.17.3 When using an explicit action step, make it immediate, easy and low risk
6.17.4 Consider a bonus to a good offer when customers can respond quickly
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

7.Message

7 Message Relevance Applied
7.1 Rational Arguments
7.1.1 Use only strong arguments for high-involvement products
7.1.2 Use positive arguments
7.2 Clarity
7.2.1 Use simple prose for high-involvement products with strong arguments
7.2.2 Avoid negative words unless the target market believes the opposite
7.3 Forceful Text
7.3.1 Use specific words
7.3.2 Use power words if they fit the product
7.3.3 Use active rather than passive voice, unless the subject of the sentence is obvious
7.4 Interesting Text
7.4.1 Consider interesting writing
7.5 Tone
7.5.1 Use a calm tone for high-involvement products with strong arguments
7.5.2 Avoid violating taste or standards
7.5.3 Be cautious in using a personal tone
7.6 Word Selection
7.6.1 Use words with sounds that support the message
7.6.2 Use words that enhance the purchasing and consuming experience
7.6.3 Use familiar words and phrases
7.7 Wordplay
7.7.1 Use wordplay if it is clearly related to the product
7.8 Metaphors
7.8.1 Consider using novel and concrete metaphors that are related to a benefit
7.9 Simplicity
7.9.1 Use a single theme- or two in some situations
7.9.2 Avoid irrelevant information if strong arguments exist
7.9.3 When using fast-exposure media, keep the message short
7.10 Informative Illustration
7.10.1 Illustrations should support the basic message
7.10.2 Show the product
7.10.3 Emphasize desirable features in illustrations
7.10.4 When believability is an issue, use photographs/videos instead of drawings/cartoons
7.11 Infromative Color
7.11.1 Use color to provide information
7.12 Ad Consistency
7.12.1 Make elements of an ad reinforce one another
7.13 Disclaimer and Corrective Advertising
7.13.1 Use disclaimers or corrective advertising only if they provide information customers need
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

8.Attention

8 Attention Relevance Applied
8.1 Alerting the target market
8.1.1 Alert the target market early and prominently
8.2 Campaign Consistency
8.2.1 Provide a consistent look to all aspects of the campaign
8.2.2 Keep the advertising consistent across time
8.3 Campaign Contrast
8.3.1 When strong arguments exist, consider using ads that contrast with competitors’ ads
8.4 Slogans and Taglines
8.4.1 Consider a short memorable slogan (tagline) with the brand name and benefit
8.5 Brand Identifiers
8.5.1 In a long-term advertising program, emphasize brand identifiers
8.5.2 Use logos to express meanings or emotions
8.6 Attractive Visuals
8.6.1 Consider using visuals that create favorable associations with the product
8.7 Color for Attention
8.7.1 To gain attention, consider using color
8.8 Humor
8.8.1 Consider using humor for well-known, low-involvement products
8.8.2 Consider humor for high-involvement products only if relevant to a simple argument
8.9 Sex
8.9.1 Use sex only when it has relevance to the product
8.10 Models
8.10.1 Match the model to the target market and product
8.10.2 Use physically attractive models when the product enhances beauty or social competence
8.11 Technical Quality
8.11.1 Strive for high technical quality at a low cost
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

9.Still Media

9 Still Media Relevance Applied
9.1 Headline
9.1.1 Use descriptive headlines for high-involvement products
9.1.2 Include the brand name in the headline
9.1.3 Lead the reader into the body copy
9.1.4 Keep the headline short for low-involvement goods only
9.2 Pictures
9.2.1 For high-involvement ads based on strong arguments, consider informative pictures
9.2.2 When using a picture, relate it to the headline or message
9.2.3 Use clear and readable captions for pictures
9.3 Text
9.3.1 Make the first paragraph relevant, short and easy to read
9.3.2 Provide long copy when reading time is not constrained
9.3.3 Repeat the main message at the end of the ad
9.4 Structure of Body Text
9.4.1 Use informative subheadings for long copy
9.4.2 Use stylistic guides for long copy with strong arguments
9.4.3 Use columns for long, informative text
9.4.4 Consider blank line spacing between paragraphs for scanability
9.4.5 Use justification for moderate to long lines of text
9.4.6 Squeeze inter-letter spacing gently
9.4.7 Use phrase spacing for informative text
9.5 Typeface
9.5.1 Use a simple serif typeface when readability is important, and a simple sans serif typeface when legibility or scanning is important
9.5.2 Provide high contrast between typeface and background
9.5.3 Avoid upper case and bold for informative text
9.5.4 Select a typeface to enhance meaning and emotion
9.6 Layout
9.6.1 Obey gravity
9.6.2 Avoid large pictures in informative ads
9.6.3 Balance the layout
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0

10.Motion Media

10 Motion Media Relevance Applied
10.1 Scenes
10.1.1 Use an opening that is directly related to the product, brand or message
10.1.2 Emphasize the product or message
10.1.3 If believability is important, show the spokesperson on-screen
10.1.4 Use short “supers” to reinforce key points
10.1.5 Make the closing scene relevant to the key message
10.2 Voice
10.2.1 Use a spokesperson with an appropriate voice
10.2.2 Avoid orally ambiguous letters or words
10.3 Music and Sounds
10.3.1 Consider using music or sounds for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products with strong arguments
10.3.2 If music or sound effects are used, make them relevant to the product
10.4 Pace
10.4.1 Use rapid speech for simple messages about low-involvement products
10.4.2 Use slow speech for strong arguments or to show concern
10.4.3 Consider short silences before and/or after strong arguments
10.4.4 Hold scenes to hold attention
Number of Principles Deemed Relevant 0
Number of Principles Applied 0