the nearness of the Parousia


c h a p t e r 1 4

Unity, Freedom, and Christ’s Return Paul’s Letters to Thessalonica and Corinth

The time we live in will not last long. . . . For the whole frame of this world is passing away. 1 Corinthians 7:29, 31

Paul’s early letters are dominated by his eschatology. Convinced that the Messiah’s death and resurrection have inaugurated End time, Paul strives to achieve several related goals. Traveling from city to city, he establishes small cells of believers whom he calls to a “new life in Christ.” He argues that Jesus’ crucifixion has brought freedom from both Torah observance and the power of sin, and he emphasizes the necessity of leading an ethically pure life while awaiting Christ’s return. In his letters to the young Greek churches at Thessalonica and Corinth, Paul underscores the nearness of the Parousia —the

Second Coming—an event that he believes to be imminent. Much of Paul’s advice to these congregations is based on his desire that they achieve unity and purity before Christ reappears. While he is attempting to keep believers faithful to the high ideals of Christian practice, Paul also fi nds himself battling opponents who question the correctness of his teaching and/or his apostolic authority. According to Luke, an apostle was one whom Jesus had personally called to follow him and who had witnessed the Resurrection (Acts 1:21–22). Not only had Paul not known the earthly Jesus; he had cruelly

Key Topics/Themes The dominant theme of Paul’s letters to Thessalonica and Corinth is that the eschaton is near: Paul expects to witness Jesus’ return and the resurrection of the dead in his lifetime (1 Thess . 4:13–18). However, believers must not waste time speculating about the projected date of the Parousia (1 Thess . 5:1–3). Paul’s letters to Corinth are aimed at healing serious divisions in the newly founded church there. Paul urges members to give up their destructive competitiveness and work toward unity of belief and purpose. Their cooperation is essential because the remaining

time is so short.

Hospitality Facilities Management

Hospitality Facilities Management
Homework #1 Property Operating Maintenance & Energy Cost



The Budget property (hotel/resort) has a total of 400 available guest rooms/suites, several restaurants and bars, extensive meeting space, indoor swimming pool, health club and spa. Total enclosed area is about 360,000 square feet (33,445 square meter)
If not stated differently, base your answers on “this year” Sample POM and Energy Data.


1. (3) Calculate the total annual revenue (sales and income) of the budget property for this year 2019 both actual (Y-T-D) and this year’s “Forecast” and “Last Year” Revenue.


Actual annual revenue $_____________________/Year


Forecast annual revenue $_________________/year


Last year annual revenue $__________________/year


2. (1) Assuming an annual achieved occupancy rate of 70 % at the budget property, determine the “Total Engineering (POMEC) costs per occupied room” for the property:


___________________________/occupied room


3. (1) Determine the “Electricity Cost per occupied room” for the budget property:


__________________________/occupied room (electricity)


4. (2) Determine the “electricity cost” as a percentage of total (gross) energy cost:


__________ percent


5. (2) Determine the gross “Energy Cost” and “POM Cost” per available room at the budget property:


Energy Cost $_____________/available room

POM Cost $______________/available room




6. (5) Determine the following “per available room” costs:


6.1 Electricity $______________ Payroll (SWB-Maintenance) $_________________


6.2 Fuel $______________ Maintenance Expense (other than labor) $___________


6.3 Water/Sewer $_____________





7. (1) Express the “payroll Cost” (total payroll & related expenses) of the budget property in terms of how many cents of the property operation and maintenance/repair and maintenance dollars are spent on payroll & related expenses:

_________________ per POM/R&M dollar


8. (2) As shown on the POMEC budget this year (Y-T-D), each dollar spent for POM/R&M payroll & related expense requires approximately

$_________________(sales and income)


9. (1) Compare and Contrast Energy Cost of this year with last year cost.


____________ and _____________%


10. (2) Compare and contrast “total Other Expenses” of POM/R&M cost of this year with Forecast year.


___________ and _____________%

Nexflix Documentary about Big Pharma

DOCUMENTARY NOTES – Due January 28 by 11:59 pm


As you watch the documentary for the first time, I ask you to make notes in the following areas. This filled-in NOTES document is due by January 28, at 11:59 pm turned into the designated dropbox.

Student’s Name:


Selected documentary:


Where does the unethical action occur?



Who are the main actors (people who took action)?



When did the unethical action occur?



List the different companies/organizations that took unethical action.




For the Documentary Analysis questions in each module assignment, you will focus on one organization/company and analyze why the unethical behavior occurred and how to prevent it in the future. Which company do you think you will focus on for the paper?


Who are the main people in the situation who were harmed by the organization’s actions or decisions and how were they harmed?

Try to identify at least 3 different individuals or groups of people.


Explain what happened. As we proceed in the course, you will focus on explaining why what happened was unethical. Right now, just make notes about what happened. You can explain in your own words what you thought was wrong.





As you watch the documentary this first time, just jot down notes of why you think the unethical situation occurred in your own words:





What could the organization do or have done to keep the unethical situation from happening? Answer this in your own words.




What questions do you have about what happened? What is your plan for answering these questions?




Other notes that may help you later:

Consumer Behavior Case Study

The pandemic has thrust upon us unprecedented challenges and uncertainties. Crises like this take a heavy economic toll, while the disruption they bring about often heralds new consumer and marketing trends. For example, the need to generate income during the 2009 financial crisis led to the creation of marketplaces for underutilized assets, giving rise to the sharing economy; the shutdown following the 2003 SARS epidemic stimulated the widespread adoption of e-commerce in major economies in Asia, making China the center of innovation around social commerce. So, for your first discussion post, share your opinions on how changes in marketplace and consumption behaviors during the pandemic, due to safety measures like social distancing, stay-at-home orders, mask-wearing, etc.,  may evolve to create new consumption patterns that may prevail in the next ‘normal.’Consider the following prompts for your discussion (250-500 words)

  1. How has consumer behavior – the way consumers shop and interact with brands – changed during the pandemic?
  2. Give atleast one example of a new trend in consumer shopping behavior (e.g., social commerce) and strategies that brands have adopted to adapt to this changing trend (e.g., virtual try-ons, livestream shopping)
  3. Are these changes here to stay or will consumers fall back to old habits (e.g. patroning brick-and-mortar stores) once the threat has passed?