QUESTION 1Which of the following is a basic element of classical criminology?Human behavior is a product of social, biological, or economic forces that can be empirically measured.Crime exists because of a lack of norms or clear social standards.Crime is attractive when it promises great benefits with little effort.Crime is a product of the capitalist system.QUESTION 2Rational choice theorists view crime as both _________ and ________ specific.Offense and offenderReward and offenderVictim and offenderOffense and victimQUESTION 3______________ behavior is any action that departs from the social norms of society.DeviantIllegalCriminalMisdemeanorQUESTION 4Which was the first written criminal code?Common Law CodeMosaic CodeCode of HammurabiQUESTION 5To address the nonreporting issue, the federal government sponsors the:IPSRUCRFDICNCVSQUESTION 6____________ deterrence holds that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts.BroadIntervalIntermediateSpecificQUESTION 7____________ uses multiple advances computational methods, including artificial intelligence, to analyze large data sets usually involving one or more data solutions.Data miningCrime mappingLogic bombingTrojan horsingQUESTION 8Criminologists look for _________ crime-rate patters to gain insight into the nature of crime.IncreasingDecreasingRandomStableQUESTION 9In the past, how did criminologists view crime victims?As an indirect role in a criminal incident.As merely the passive targets of a criminals anger or greed.As fully responsible for the criminal incident.As an active role in the incident.QUESTION 10People who are crime victims are ___________ likely to commit crimes themselves.LessEquallyNotMoreQUESTION 11People living ___________ are more likely to be vandalized.On military basesIn rural areasIn suburban communitiesIn citiesQUESTION 12Victim precipitation can be either:Scientific or empiricalActive or passiveEncouraged or discouragedInstigated or non-responsiveQUESTION 13Shoplifting and vandalism are considered ________ thrills because getting away with crime is a thrilling demonstration of personal competence.CunningTrickySneakySexyQUESTION 14What occurs when increased patrols in one community shift the crime to a more vulnerable neighborhood?DiffusionReplacementDiscouragementDisplacementQUESTION 15What is the repetition of criminal behavior called?RecidivismRetaliationReparationRestitutionQUESTION 16____________ assumes that behavioral traits may be inherited but that they may also evolve.SociobiologyMeta-evolutionMicrobiologyBiophysicsQUESTION 17When looking at the connection between genetics and crime, researchers have evaluated all the following except:Parental deviance studiesAdoption studiesTwin studiesDiet studiesQUESTION 18According to social learning theories, violence is learned through a process calledInformation processingBehavioral modelingSharingPersonificationQUESTION 19Ones personality reflects a characteristic way of _____________ lifes demands and problems.IgnoringAdapting toRejectingManipulatingQUESTION 20Monozygotic twins will have the same personality.TrueFalseQUESTION 21Problem behaviors typically involve family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment.TrueFalseQUESTION 22The more crime a person commits, the less likely he or she is to suffer premature death.TrueFalseQUESTION 23Most young criminals desist and do not become adult offenders.TrueFalseQUESTION 24The basic premise of ___________ theory is that there is more than one path to crime and more that one class of offender.Life course theoryPropensity theoryTrajectory theoryCritical theoryQUESTION 25Which of the following is NOT an element of impulsivity?PhysicalShortsightedVerbalInsensitive
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