Answer all of the short-essay questions in complete sentences. Answers
should range from 1 to 2 paragraphs depending upon the question.
In the Consolation of Philosophy, Lady Philosophy says that “all men try by various means to attain this state of happiness; for there is naturally implanted in the minds of men the desire for the true good, even though foolish error draws them toward false goods.” Discuss three of five false goods that she lists, and be sure to indicate why these goods cannot cure anxiety or satisfy despair. (Bks. II, III)
Lady Philosophy discovers the sickness of anxiety inside Boethius. What is anxiety and how might it be (or lead to) a sickness? And what is the relationship between Fortune and human anxiety? What might be a possible cure for the sickness of anxiety? (Bks. II-IV)
In the Grounding for a Metaphysics of Morals, Kant’s Categorical Imperative says: “I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law” (4:402). In this context, how does Kant show that making false promises is immoral. (Secs. I-II)
According to Kant, is it permitted under any circumstance to treat another rational being as merely a means to an end? Why or why not? (Be sure to fully develop the difference between instrumental and intrinsic value). (Sec. II)
Existentialism is a Humanism, Sartre argues that humankind’s existence precedes its essence. What does this mean, what emotions does it produce, why does Sartre believe it is true, and what effects would it ultimately have upon morality if it were true? (Be sure to address the three emotions that accompany this principle).